As I discussed in my recent article, Fighting Fungophobia (or Mycophobia) …the fear of mushrooms, here is a list of 70 Distinctive Mushrooms:

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part One: 1-10)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Two: 11-20)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Three: 21-30)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Four: 31-40 )
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Five: 41-50)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Six: 51-60)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Seven: 61-70)

This list of mushrooms comes from David Arora, mycologist extraordinaire and author of Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and More. I’ve added photos and a brief paragraph about reported edibility, characteristics, distribution, and habitat. Remember, this is not meant to be an identification guide but rather an introduction to some pretty amazing and representative mushrooms. The mushrooms on this list are all found in the United States (my home), but the majority are also found outside of North America.

A quick note on edibility: I am listing whether the mushroom is considered Edible or Poisonous or Deadly Poisonous. Understand that all mushrooms should be cooked before being eaten. Even edible mushrooms can cause gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, stomach cramping, and/or diarrhea) if the mushrooms are not cooked. Yes, some people can handle raw mushrooms in small amounts (mainly just the common, grocery store “button mushrooms”), but most will succumb to symptoms if they eat enough raw mushrooms, especially wild mushrooms. Also, note that some edible mushrooms may cause gastrointestinal symptoms for some individuals and none for other individuals. One species may cause some symptoms for one person but not for another. It is variable. If it is your first time consuming a new type of mushrooms, go slow. Eat a little bit one day, and if you do well, then consume a bit more the next day. If you still have no problems, then you can likely eat that type of mushroom with no issues. Finally, note that most anyone has a good chance of getting gastrointestinal symptoms if they eat an excessively large amount of mushrooms of any type. Just like if a person eats a whole pot of bean-laden chili… watch out! Keep it in moderation, but have fun!

Seventy mushroom listings and photographs will take a lot of space, so I am going to break the list up into ten species segments. I recommend reading David Arora’s books as well as some local field guides. Then go outside and get to know the fungus among us… er, you, I mean.

Here are the next ten:

31. Sulfur Tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare)
32. Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)
33. Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)
34. Pine Spikes (Chroogomphus species)
35. Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)
36. Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)
37. Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus, B. regius)
38. Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas)
39. Apple Bolete (Boletus frostii)
40. White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

Here is the list again with photos and accompanying paragraph of additional information:

Hypholoma fasciculare

Sulfur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare)

Hypholoma fasciculare

Sulfur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare)

31. Sulfur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare): Poisonous. This clumping mushroom is bitter tasting and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and convulsions. Often bright yellow, but can be yellow-green or yellow-orange as well. Cap size: 0.8-2.0 inches (2-5 cm), but can get to 3.5 inches (9 cm). Common in North America, Europe, and Asia growing on decaying/dead deciduous and coniferous wood (wood can be above or below ground).

 

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

32. Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa): Poisonous. (it was once considered edible by some, but is now considered poisonous… meaning that while some can eat it and have no problems, most people will develop vomiting and diarrhea if they consume this mushroom, especially if consumed in combination with alcohol). This is a pretty unique mushroom. The cap may resemble other mushrooms, but the scaly stalk is fairly unique. Cap size: 1.2-3.9 inches (3-10 cm), but can get to 5.9 inches (15 cm). Common in North America and Europe. Found growing in both coniferous and deciduous forests, often at the base of trees.

 

 

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

33. Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus): Edible (not very good). This mushroom is a beautiful deep purple (almost black at times) and is often “wooly” in appearance due to minute “hairs” or scales. Cap size: 1.4-4.7 inches (3.5-12 cm), but can get to 5.9 inches (15 cm). Found in North and Central America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, but it is not very common (except in the Pacific Northwest). In North America, it favors coniferous trees, and in Europe it favors deciduous trees.

 

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

34. Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species): Edible. These species are very similar in appearance and are all edible. The dark, red pigment may harmlessly turn urine red (just like beet juice), so be warned before you eat them. The decurrent gills (gills that start to run down the stalk) are almost always present. Cap size: 0.8-5.9 inches (2-15 cm). Common in the Northern Hemisphere. Found growing under pine trees and other conifers, often with Slippery Jacks .

 

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

35. Slippery Jacks (Suillus species): Edible. The Suillus species are commonly known as “slippery jacks” since most caps are slimy. They are in the order Boletales which means they have a sponge-like layer of tubes on the underside of the cap instead of gills. There are over 70 species found in North America. All are considered edible, but none are highly prized considering their slimy nature. Cap size: 1.2-7.1 inches (3-18 cm). Found in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, they have also been introduced to the Southern Hemisphere. Most commonly found with pine trees and occasionally with other conifers.

 

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

36. Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis): Edible (very good). This bolete is pretty unmistakable with its maroon-brown cap and yellow pores, but it is not that widely distributed. It is important not to eat specimens with a white mold growing on it. Cap size: 2.0-5.9 inches (5-15 cm), but can reach 7.9 inches (20 cm). Found in coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest and in Asia.

 

Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus)

Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus)

Butter Bolete (Boletus regius)

Butter Bolete (Boletus regius)

37. Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus, B. regius): Edible. These two species are both edible and usually have blue-staining flesh. Cap: 2.4-7.9 inches (6-20 cm), but can reach 11.8 inches (30 cm). Found in the Pacific Northwest (occasionlly in Europe) by itself or in large numbers on the ground under hardwoods and occasionally with conifers.

 

Satan's Bolete (Boletus satanas)

Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas)

Satan's Bolete (Boletus satanas)

Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas)

38. Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas): Poisonous. This bulbous, oak loving mushroom is hard to mistake. The cap is usually pale gray to olive and the stalk is redish-pink and fading to off-white with age. The flesh will turn blue when bruised. Will cause violent vomiting if eaten, although some eat it with no problem. As David Arora says, “…when so many more delectable and less dangerous mushrooms abound, why tempt fate?” Cap: 2.8-11.8 inches (7-30 cm). Commonly found in warmer temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere in hardwood forests, especially with oak (North America) and beech (Europe).

 

Apple Bolete, Frost's Bolete (Boletus frostii)

Apple Bolete, Frost’s Bolete (Boletus frostii)

Apple Bolete, Frost's Bolete (Boletus frostii)

Apple Bolete, Frost’s Bolete (Boletus frostii)

39. Apple Bolete, Frost’s Bolete (Boletus frostii): Edible (caution advised due to resemblance to poisonous species!) This mushroom is beautiful with its characteristic dark-red to apple-red cap, red netted stalk, and flesh that turns blue when bruised. Pores often exude golden-colored droplets. Cap size: inches 2.0-5.9 inches (5-15 cm). Found alone, scattered, or in groups under hardwoods and pines, prefering oaks. Common throughout the eastern United States and into Mexico and Central America.

 

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

40. White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii): Edible (choice). The cap, pores, and stalk of this large bolete are all dull white to gray that becomes yellow to olive-yellow with age. Reportedly a very fine-tasting mushroom. Cap: 2.4-9.8 inches (6-25 cm). Found in southwestern North America under conifers (pines) and hardwood (oaks).

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 Photo References:

  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Stropharia/Hypholoma%20fasciculare/Hypholoma%20fasciculare%20101.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Hypholoma_fasciculare_LC0091.jpg
  • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-5JnSkrGWhCk/TqR2yAkQ4jI/AAAAAAAAAIw/GEtJmJTgskQ/s1600/Pholiota%2Bsquarrosa.jpg
  • http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_2w9RJzTe-i0/TFcAYoo9QgI/AAAAAAAABXY/ynrP9eWFaco/s1600/CIMG1992.JPG
  • https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/4571/Cortinarius_violaceus_Purple_Cortinarius.jpg?sequence=1
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Cortinarius/Cortinarius%20violaceus/Cortinarius%20violaceus%20107.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Chroogomphus_vinicolor_116581.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Chroogomphus_rutilus_Bryonia_orig.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Suillus_luteus_2.jpg
  • http://plantingmilkwood.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/1205-slippery-jacks-07.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Boletus_mirabilis(mgw-04).jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Boletus_mirabilis(fs-01).jpg
  • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-13ekYrRdvgc/ULJldLh-7_I/AAAAAAAAAgg/vJXuBwpFD0c/s1600/BOLETUS+REGIUS+.JPG
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Boletus_appendiculatus_(72425),_Novato,_California_-_20091109.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus/Boletus%20satanas/Boletus%20satanas%204.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Satans-Röhrling_Boletus_satanas.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus/Boletus%20frostii%201.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Boletus_frostii_100632.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus/Boletus%20barrowsii2.jpg
  • http://www.newmexicomyco.org/sites/default/files/Boletus_barrowsii.jpg