Mycelial or Fungus Layer

Why I Love Hunting Mushrooms

The art above is Mushroom Picking, painted in 1860 by Polish painter Franciszek Kostrzewski.

 

Cooking some Shaggy Mane mushrooms I collected when living in the Azores, Portugal.

Cooking some Shaggy Mane mushrooms (Coprinus comatus) I collected when living in the Azores, Portugal. One of my favorites!

1. I love to eat mushrooms!

This is a pretty common reason why people get started hunting mushrooms, and I am no different. I had little love for mushrooms as I was growing up in suburbia. The choice was Button Mushrooms or Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), and I thought they were bland and slimy. However, after many years of traveling around the world, and being exposed to a wide variety of traditional, cultural foods, I not only grew to appreciate the mushroom as a food, but I became intrigued with the heritage and culture of foraging for this sometimes elusive prey. There are so many mushrooms with amazing flavors and textures that cannot be cultivated; they can only be foraged from the wild and only in the right season when all the conditions are perfect for a particular species to form the fruiting body (aka the “mushroom”). This has taken me on an exciting culinary journey: Chanterelles (Cantharellus cibarius) in the Pacific Northwest; Boletes/Porcini/Steinpilz (Boletus edulis) in Spain (with wild harvested snails) and Germany (with wild boar in a cream sauce); Morels (Morchella) in Minnesota; Shaggy Manes (Coprinus comatus) in the Azores; and most recently, Giant Puffballs (Calvatia gigantea), Crown-Tipped Coral Fungus (Artomyces pyxidatus or Clavicorona pyxidata), and a Bauernhof Bolete** (Xanthoconium purpureum) on our farm in East Tennessee. 

 

Puffball_Hunter_03

Two photos of one of my sons with a Purple-Spored Puffball (Calvatia cyathiformis) taken 36 hours apart. This mushroom grows fast! This one was insect-ridden, so unfortunately it could not be eaten.

2. I love to be outside!

Any reason to keep me outside is a good thing. It is healthier for humans to be outside than to be indoors, not just physically, but mentally, emotionally, and spiritually as well. I hope to write more about this in the future, but there is a lot of modern research that supports what many people have been saying for centuries.

 

The Gem-Studed Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum)

The Gem-Studded Puffball (Lycoperdon perlatum), another edible mushroom in our forest!

My son and I found these Old Man of the Woods Mushrooms (Strobilomyces strobilaceus, also called Strobilomyces floccopus )

My son and I found these Old Man of the Woods Mushrooms (Strobilomyces strobilaceus or Strobilomyces floccopus), and these are yet another edible species of bolete on our farm!

3. I love to be in the forest!

This is a bit of an extension of “I love to be outside!”, but is is different. There is a drastic difference when I am working with my animals in the pasture versus when I am meandering through the forest. Both are outside, but there is an almost magical feeling for me when I am walking under the canopy of large trees. There is shade. The temperature is cooler. The air is moister. The noises are different. The colors are simultaneously muted but more intense. There is a rich scent that can only be found in the woods. This is where most mushrooms reside and hide.

 

A stunning Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea)

A stunning Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) – not my photo

An Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) - also not my photo

An Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) – also not my photo

4. I love to observe nature!

Hunting for mushrooms is not a fast chase. It is a slow, thoughtful stroll in the woods. Walk too fast, and I will miss the mushrooms. When I slow down to a mushroom-hunting pace, I notice more things. I come across new plants and insects. I see a tree I didn’t know was here. Birds settle down more and care less about my presence. Only a week ago, on the day I found the Bauernhof Bolete** on my farm, a Red Tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) flew into the hollow I was traversing. It landed in a tree just a few dozen yards from me and began to cry its classic kee-eeeee-arr!  About ten minutes later, I noticed a flash of reddish-brown and white and saw an Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus) hunting for food amongst the shrubs on the forest edge. Only two minutes after than, a vivid blue Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyane) landed on the branch of a pawpaw tree (Asimina triloba) I was excited to see was fruiting. These experiences are not what I get when I am hustling through from one point to another with only the destination in mind.

Identifying mushrooms also requires identifying the plants surrounding the mushroom. Was the mushroom fruiting on a conifer or hardwood tree? What species produced these dead logs and branches? Was the mushroom growing in the soil or on a log or on a log buried in the soil? These observations may make a big difference on whether I can identify a mushroom or not.

 

The first edible bolete I found in our forest!

The first edible bolete I found in our forest!

Classic bolete mushroom showing pores instead of gills.

Classic bolete mushroom showing pores instead of gills.

Another photo of the same species.

Another photo of the same species right before I cooked them!

5. I love to learn new things!

Thankfully, there is a never ending wealth of information and observations in the natural world. Mycology, while not a young science, is a rapidly growing field. I will not run out of new material when it comes to mushrooms!

**I came across the above bolete mushroom in our forest, and I was excited. Okay, I was pretty ecstatic! I absolutely love mushrooms, and a decent argument could be made for calling boletes the king of culinary mushrooms. But I had a heck of a time identifying this species. I am 99% sure that this is Xanthoconium purpureum. Also known as Boletus purpureofuscus, this summer bolete is common in the oak-hickory forests of the eastern United States, which is exactly where my farm is located. The cap (pileus) is velvety when young and can come in a range of colors from purplish-red to maroon to brown. I was surprised that this mushroom has no common name.

This species can contain a fair amount of bitterness, especially in the cap, but the stalk is quite good.

In celebration of finding this delicious mushroom growing in our forest, and the fact that this mushroom has no common name, I decided to call it the Bauernhof Bolete (after our farm, the Bauernhof Kitsteiner). Scientific names are a lot more difficult to create, but not a common name. That’s as easy as, well, just proposing it… like I just did!

(For full disclosure, there is a chance this mushroom is Xanthoconium affine, but I don’t think so. I will verify it with some chemical testing when I find some more samples!)

 

The Crown-Tipped Coral Fungus (Artomyces pyxidatus or Clavicorona pyxidata) is a delicious and very uncommon edible mushroom!

The Crown-Tipped Coral Fungus (Artomyces pyxidatus or Clavicorona pyxidata) is a delicious and very uncommon edible mushroom! They have a great, almost crunchy texture

A Common Earthball mushroom (Scleroderma citrinum), a non-deadly, but poisonous mushroom found in our forest.

A young Common Earthball mushroom (Scleroderma citrinum), a non-deadly, but poisonous mushroom found in our forest. It can cause significant gastrointestinal upset!

My 6 year old son is able to identify this Destroying Angel Mushroom (Amanita bisporigera)

My 6 year old son is able to identify this Destroying Angel Mushroom (Amanita bisporigera). It is a deadly mushroom, which is why he is giving a “mean face”.

6. I love to be adventurous!

There is a bit of adventure and a bit of daring when it comes to finding a new mushroom, identifying it, determining its edibility, then preparing it, cooking it, and eating it. It is not the same as hunting a wild animal, but it is not entirely unlike it either. Proper identification can make the difference between a fantastic meal or a night spent with intestinal misery (rarely death, but that is also possible if an egregious error is made). There are many, many people who think I am a bit, well, unconventional to eat mushrooms I collect from the wild. As mycologist David Arora, writes…

Bring home what looks like a wild onion for dinner, and no one gives it a second thought – despite the fact it might be a Death Camas you have, especially if you didn’t bother to smell it. But bring home a wild mushroom for dinner, and watch the faces of your friends crawl with various combinations of fear, anxiety, loathing, and distrust!

 

It was quite fun to show kids why this Dog Stinkorn ( Mutinus caninus) has an appropriate name!

It was quite fun to show my kids why this Dog Stinkorn (Mutinus caninus) has an appropriate name!

A montage of items collected with my 4 year old daughter during a walk in the woods.

A montage of items collected with my 4 year old daughter during a walk in the woods.  Clockwise from the turtle: Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina), Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantea), Bolete (I believe it is Boletus harrisonii), Meadow Violet (Viola sororia), Crown-Tipped Coral Fungus (Artomyces pyxidatus or Clavicorona pyxidata), Unripe Mayapple, also known as the Wild American Mandrake (Podophyllum peltatum).

7. I love to teach!

Taking my kids into the woods and showing them the science, art, and craft of foraging wild foods is one of my favorite things to do. This activity combines most of my favorite things in life: nature, forests, science, foraging, food, and family. Life just doesn’t get much better!

 

If you liked this article, you may like…

Seventy Distintive Mushrooms
Wild Mushroom Identification (and a project for kids!)

 

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Photo References:

  • All photos of mushrooms are mine. Please ask if you would like to use them.
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mushroom_hunting#/media/File:KostrzewskiFranciszek.Grzybobranie.1860.jpg
  • https://www.audubon.org/sites/default/files/styles/hero_cover_bird_page/public/Indigo%20Bunting%20c22-37-204_V.jpg?itok=RL9WiOBS
  • https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/21/Pipilo_erythrophthalmus_-Quabbin_Reservoir,_Massachusetts,_USA_-male-8.jpg

December 2014 Farm Update (and photos from an iPhone!)

We have a few months before we move to our new farm, but we were able to take a trip there this past weekend. We are still trying to settle on names for all the structures and landforms on the property, so there will be some changes in what we call things as time moves on. The big house/main house is really ready to move in although we do want to paint some walls and do a little bit of repair work before we actually settle in there.

Just off from the big house is a large, three door garage that has never housed a vehicle. The main floor is very clean, and this will be a great storage location and possibly a spot for a classroom (we will see). There is a full bathroom on the ground floor of this building, and there is a very large, unfinished room upstairs with a kitchen. This upstairs room is not in great shape – very rough and pretty dirty. We will be fixing up this place for my parents to temporarily live. Well, as much as I would love to be working on it, the reality is that my dad will be the one doing most of the work. He is an (almost) retired carpenter, and very highly skilled. Our plan is to fix up this apartment and then put our focus on really renovating the 2 bedroom farm house/small house/cottage that was built many years ago – I want to say 1920, but I am not sure that is correct. No matter, it is in very poor condition. It will require quite a bit of work. It will be fun to see how this project develops, but I have some initial ideas involving straw bales!

I have written about it before, so it should come as no surprise that I am a huge proponent of multi-generational households. I am so excited to have my parents move with us permanently to the farm. In truth, they have been with us off and on (mostly on) for the past year. It has been a wonderful experience not just for me, but for my wife and children as well. This is due in large part to the personality of my parents and my amazing wife. But I know I am not the only one. My friend Cliff Davis, over at Spiral Ridge Permaculture, just posted a comment on Facebook about grandma coming to live at their homestead, “Intergenerational households are a major part of the agrarian lifestyle.” I couldn’t agree more!

I finally had the opportunity to go take a walk on the property. I didn’t have a landowner or real estate agent walking with me. It was just me. Me and the rain that is. Of course, our first unencumbered trip to the farm also coincided with a cold snap and three days of steady rain. But I didn’t care. I put on my rain boots and jacket and went for a stroll. I headed out to the highest ridge that meets our tree line.

Facing east

View from the tree line on the highest minor ridge. Roughly facing east. The blue roofed structure is the garage/apartment. Just right is the white, triangular gable of the big house.

Facing southeast

Same spot, turned 90 degrees, facing south. The building on the left is the hunting lodge/shack/cabin. It was used by the hunters who used to hunt coyotes on the property. Just to the right, and partially hidden by trees is the the little 2 bedroom farm house/cottage.  In the center is the large pond.

Facing southwest

Same spot, turned another 40 degrees or so, facing southwest.

If you are an astute Permaculturist/Keyliner, then you would have noticed the run off. Honestly, it was hard to miss when you were walking around out there. It sounded like there were tiny streams everywhere. In reality, that’s just about the truth. The main pastures have been pretty poorly managed, and the former owner let cattle graze wherever they chose over 45+ acres. This resulted in a lot of cattle trails that filled with water and caused erosion. Also, every valley soon filled with all the run off and became small, temporary streams.

Waterlogged02

Walking on the low spot in the small valley between ridges was like walking on a super saturated sponge – it was squishing with each step! Fortunately, the water was crystal clear.

Watterlogging

Another view of the temporary streams in the valleys. The water was moving fast – sounded like a bubbling brook. I can’t imagine how much water was lost from the farm in these few days… well, actually, I could probably calculate it, but I don’t feel like it right now!

Ponds

This shot is taken just uphill from the upper/small pond. The large pond is in the distance, in the center, just above (downhill from) the small pond. There are two major problems with this pond. On the left corner, you can see all the yellow silt streaming into the pond. On the right corner, the pond wall has been eroded from cattle. The pond is overflowing into the valley, and is bypassing (the water level is lower than) the overflow pipe. This will need to be addressed quickly!

Lower Pond

The large/lower pond. Cattails line most edges. I saw fish swimming. It is in pretty good condition.

Upper_Pond_02

The upper pond has two main feeds. One is full of silt. The other is full of clear water and black walnuts!

Upper_Pond_01

Overflow out of the pond. The overflow (drain) pipe is just off to the left, mid photo. The cattle have created this erosive spillway that was flowing pretty fast.

Middle Pond

The third pond/middle pond/east pond is in fair condition. The cattle have almost eroded one corner of the wall, but not quite. The overflow/drain pipe is working well. There is some silt being deposited, but not a lot. With a little maintenance, this pond should do very well.

After perusing the fields and ponds, I took a few walks in the woods. Walking through the woods alone in the cold drizzle was quite relaxing. I am always amazed at the life you can see when you take the time to be still and quiet in the forest. I was very encouraged at the proliferation of fungal life in these woods. There were many species besides the numerous “little brown mushrooms” that I couldn’t identify. But I did see some familiar faces (er… fungi). And while I didn’t see any edibles (yet!), there were dozens of logs covered in Turkey Tail, a highly valued medicinal.

Turkey Tail

Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)

Turkey Tail

A beautiful colony of Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)

Unknown fungus

Unknown fungus. These were covering many downed branches.

Unknown shelf mushroom

A few shots of a shelf mushroom. I saw a large number of this species. I’m pretty sure it is the Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum).

Unknown Jelly Fungus

A pretty jelly fungus, likely Amber Jelly Roll/Willow Brain (Exidia recisa)

In addition to the fungal life, there was plenty of evidence that the nut-producing trees were doing well. There were many Oak Trees (both in the Red Oak Group and White Oak Group), Black Walnut, and Shagbark Hickory trees. There were some Maple. There were a number of other trees that I just couldn’t identify without leaves.

Oak

Oak – not sure of the species. Possibly Northern Red Oak?

Shagbark Hickory

Shagbark Hickory (possibly a Shellbark Hickory… I need to investigate a bit more first)

Through most of the walks was our Dalmation.

Accompanying most of the walks was our Dalmation… he was like a puppy running rough the woods and fields!

 

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Photo References: All photos are mine (taken from an iPhone!). If you would like to use any of them, please let me know!

 

Wild Mushroom Identification (and a project for kids!)

I want to take a few minutes to explain why identifying your local mushrooms is important. Even if you have no desire to ever eat a wild mushroom, which I think is a travesty, there is still a few good reasons to go beyond simple avoidance.

And for all you sticklers out there, I know a “mushroom” is really called a “fruiting body”, but for sake of simplicity for the average reader, I will stick with the layman’s vernacular. 

These mushrooms popped up all over my neighborhood... but what were they?

These mushrooms popped up all over my neighborhood… but what were they?

Before I get into the reasons, let me give you some background:
We’ve been in our new neighborhood for a few weeks now, and last week it rained quite a bit. Within a few days, there were mushrooms popping up in many of our neighbors lawns. Now I never really dismiss mushrooms. I am kind of addicted to them. I like to try and identify mushrooms, and I absolutely love to find edible mushrooms. However, I am not a highly skilled mycologist. Yes, when comparing myself to the average man-on-the-street, I am smarter than your average bear pertaining to the topic of mycology. But I am not a Paul Stamets or David Arora (these are two famous and noted mycologists… two of my favorite mycologists, in fact… and I know it makes me a geek when I actually have “favorite” mycologists!).

Well, the ones I saw were large, mostly white, and gilled. While a number of mushrooms can make a person sick, very few mushrooms in North America are actually deadly; however, there are a few mushrooms fitting this description that are, indeed, deadly. This includes the Death Cap (Amanita phalloides) and the Destroying Angels (species including Amanita ocreata, A. verna, A. virosa, A. bisporigera). If a person is a beginning mushroom hunter, you should avoid eating any mushrooms that comes close to this description. If you are a mid-level, amateur mycologist (like me), then it is fun to identify them, but I would probably never eat this type of mushroom, just in case I am wrong. A seasoned mushroom hunter or a professional mycologist may feel comfortable eating a mushroom of this type, but even some of these people avoid eating them. There is not room for error with these mushrooms. This nice thing is that these mushrooms are easily avoided. And there are so many other edible mushrooms that are easily identified, that we are not missing out on much by avoiding mushrooms that may look like deadly species.

Well, I saw a few of these mushrooms, and I quickly realized they were not going to be easily identified without a little bit of work. I had a few guesses for species, but I wasn’t sure. But we had just moved here, and we had a lot of other things going on, and frankly, I just didn’t have the time to try and identify these mushrooms. But then I saw more of them, and then some more, and then even my wife was telling me about them popping up in the neighbors’ lawns. I started to reevaluate  the need to identify these mushrooms, and I came up with a few reasons why it could actually be more than just a personally interesting project.

First – I really just like to know the biology that is surrounding me. It was kind of bothering me to have this many mushrooms popping up around me when I didn’t know what they were.

Second – In a worst-case scenario, one of my children, one of my neighbors’ children, or even my dog, could end up taking a bite of one of these mushrooms. It would be very helpful to know how concerned I needed to be about these mushrooms surrounding me, my family, and my community.

Third – I will be working in a local ER in a few weeks. It is not uncommon for parents or babysitters to show up with a child who ate some mushrooms from the front yard. They often come in with the remnants of the mushroom cap. Since this is my local area, it would be good to have this information on hand to make a faster clinical decision.

Fourth – I had a great kids science project right in front of me. Every time we walked past these mushrooms, my two boys (age 5 and 6 years old) would ask if these were poisonous mushrooms or not. I kept telling them that since we didn’t know what they were, we have to assume they are poisonous for now.

A partial Fairy Ring.

A partial Fairy Ring.

Once I decided to try and identify these mushrooms, I had to gather some information. I grabbed my boys, and we went for some collections of data and specimens. We found this partial ring of mushrooms growing a few houses away. This ringed pattern is sometimes a full circle, and it is called a Fairy or Elf Ring/Circle. After reading The Chronicles of Narnia and The Hobbit with my kids at bedtime, by boys loved that name!

I took photos of mushrooms at various ages of development, from just popping through the soil to very mature. (see the photos that follow)

Young unidentified mushrooms.

Young unidentified mushrooms.

False Parasol Chlorophyllum molybdites

Prime Unidentified Mushroom

False Parasol Chlorophyllum molybdites

Another photo of the same specimen from above, showing the gills and the firmly attached ring (annulus).

False Parasol Chlorophyllum molybdites

A mature specimen of our unidentified mushroom. 

We returned to the house with a number of photos and a few specimens. After really examining these mushrooms, I had already narrowed down the list in my head, but I was still not certain. I took about 10 minutes, and gave my boys a little science lesson on the parts and life cycle of mushrooms. They really got into it, and they can still name all the parts to a mushroom (fruiting body) – they were looking over my shoulder as I wrote this and pointed them out to me!

All my books are still being shipped from the Azores, including all my mushroom and mycology books, so I used the MycoKeys Online Morphing Mushroom Identifier. This is a really useful tool, and is pretty simple to use.

With the information I had gathered so far, I had narrowed down the choices to two likely species. The first was the highly edible Parasol Mushroom (Macrolepiota procera) or the False Parasol (Chlorophyllum molybdites) which is not deadly, but definitely poisonous causing severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. The False Parasol is responsible for the most mushroom poisonings in the United States each year. But how do we tell them apart?

The answer is a Spore Print. This is a very simple project, and my kids were fascinated by it. The spores produced by a mushroom will drop from the gills under the cap. Each individual spore is way too small to be seen by the naked eye, but if there are enough of them in one spot, we can determine the color of the spores. The fallen spores will leave a pattern that is unique to that species and individual specimen, just like a fingerprint. A mature cap (I used the one pictured above), with the stalk (stem) removed, is placed on a piece of paper. Putting the cap on a half sheet of black and a half sheet of white paper will ensure the spores can be seen if the spores are all white or black. The cap is left for at least a few hours, but it is best to leave it overnight. I had a very mature mushroom, and my kids were impatient, so after about three hours we checked on our print.

A beautiful spore sprint!

A beautiful spore sprint!
I put half of the cap back on top to show both the cap and spore print in one photograph.

The spore print was a nice, pale green, and this clinched our identification. Our mushroom was the False Parasol (Chlorophyllum molybdites). My kids now know that these mushrooms are poisonous. I am relieved they are not deadly. I have a bit more confidence in my mushroom identification skills. My kids had a fun time without even realizing they were learning… which is how education should be! And I got to know some of my mycological neighbors.

But, if I am honest, I was a bit bummed they weren’t edible!

 

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Photo References: All photos are mine. If you would like to use them, please let me know!

 
 

 

Shaggy Mane Mushrooms: Wild Harvesting in the Azores!

Yesterday, I was driving in a vehicle and I spotted what I thought were some shelf mushrooms on a tree. I was not driving, so I could not slam on the brakes and screetch to a halt, as I normally would have done, to go investigate. I did note the location. So later that day, I had a chance to take a second look. The first problem was that now I was making a specific trip to go find mushrooms based entirely on a fraction of a second, drive-by spotting. The second problem was that once I decided to make a specific trip, I now had the interest and expectations of my wife and parents (who are currently on the island with us). There was no real pressure in being wrong, that is, other than self-induced pride. After strapping my two youngest children into their carseats, my parents climbed in the van, and the five of us went on a mushroom hunt. Twenty minutes later, I was standing in a small stand of trees looking at a pile of bright orange roof tiles stacked up against the base of a tree. To be honest, they really did resemble Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus) mushrooms, but I had been defeated by a case of mistaken identity and wishful thinking. This is a common ailment in mushroomers.

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How quickly can you spot the mushroom?

We decided to turn around at the local golf course. As we were driving out, since I was driving, I slammed on the brakes and (almost) screetched to a halt. I had spotted another mushroom. This time I was certain. There was one group of golfers who seemed a bit curious about the bald, six-foot-three (190 cm) man, jogging across the green with a camera, but they just kept on playing; it seems like golfers are golfers no matter the country! I approached my target, and I dropped to a knee and smiled. It was a Shaggy Mane (Coprinus comatus)!

On a side note: I actually think all mushroomers experience uncontrollable smiling when they find a prized mushroom. But I also do the same thing when I identify a bird I have never seen in person before or when I see a plant I have only read about… the smile truly erupts from inside. It is a combination of happiness and adventure and wonder and contentment. I see it in children a lot. Sadly, I don’t see it in adults nearly as much.

My mother seemed a bit bewildered that I could spot a single, tiny mushroom in a wide open field. My wife says the same thing when I spot a bird or a lizard or a seedling. Part of me is proud of this skill, but I also know that it is a learned skill. I really think anyone can learn to do it if they have a desire. Talk to any experienced mushroomer or birder, and they will probably agree. It is just a matter of learning how to look. I will try to expand on this a bit more in another article soon, but rest assured, if you want to develop a “good eye”, you can.

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It’s really easy to see when you know what to look for.

I have recently mentioned in a previous article how the locals have told me there are no edible mushrooms in the Azores. But I had proven them wrong with finding a Puffball. However, I had yet to collect any mushroom and actually eat it. But that was about the change!

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Shaggy Mane (Coprinus comatus), a prime specimen… perfect for eating!

I was a little disappointed that there was only a single Shaggy Mane. Yes, there are a lot of highs and lows in mushrooming! But I now knew two things: First, I had found another edible mushroom on this island! Second, if there was one Shaggy Mane, there had to be more. I stood up and scanned the surrounding area… nothing. I slowly walked back to the van, scanning everywhere… still nothing. I started to drive away, straining to see any glimpse of white or ink black in the bright green grass. I was about to give up when in a small area near the entrance to the golf course I saw about a dozen more white cones protruding above the grass! I had found a Shaggy Mane patch!

Many of them were too mature to be edible still, but I did find five in good condition. I snapped a few more photos, carefully harvested my prize, and drove back home feeling rather satisfied with myself. Of course, I know most people think it is rather odd or entirely suicidal to collect wild mushrooms (see my article on Fighting Fungiphobia). I know others think it is a waste of time when one can so easily go to the grocery store. But there is an amazing diversity of flavors that await those who only eat what is on the shelves. And there is a joy in collecting wild food. It is something you need to experience to appreciate, and I hope to encourage you to give it a try.

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This one is just starting to “ink”. There is some edible parts remaining in the top of the cap, but the shelf-life is really a matter of hours now. The ink is not poisonous, but it does not have a good flavor.

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No longer edible, this Shaggy Mane cap has almost entirely deliquesced (liquified), dropping its spores in an inky mess… the origin of its other common name, the Shaggy Ink Cap.

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Here is my small harvest of Azorean Shaggy Mane mushrooms!

I brought back the mushrooms. I brushed off most of the dirt and grass then wiped them clean with a damp cloth. Shaggy Mane mushrooms do not have a long shelf life. This is why they will never be sold in a grocery store. Every once in a while, you may fine some at a Farmers Market, but they would have been collected within the previous 24 hours, probably less. In general, these mushrooms need to be eaten as soon as possible after harvesting. This means on the same day or the next day at most. But you risk them going bad. I have read one mycologist who stated that, “the butter should be melted in the pan before you pick them!” Now, they are not that sensitive, but Shaggy Manes are extremely hygroscopic… this means they love water… a lot! The caps pull water from the atmosphere and slowly dissolve into an inky mess. This will happen to all Shaggy Manes when stored for too long, so the fresher they are, the better they will be for eating.

I then split the mushrooms lengthwise and melted some butter with a splash of olive oil in a frying pan. The mushroom halves were cooked at a medium-high heat… enough to brown the mushrooms, but not enough to burn the butter. Shaggy Manes can give off a lot of water when they are cooked. This means they will shrink quite a bit when sauteed or fried. They can also be added to soups and other “wet” dishes, so that their water content fits with the meal. When I have a small batch of mushrooms, especially wild ones that are not common, I prefer to prepare them in a way that highlights their flavor, on their own.

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These are very good Shaggy Mane mushrooms. Note that they are all white with no gray or black on them… perfect for eating.

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Shaggy Manes are added to a pan of hot butter and olive oil.

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They are seasoned with a bit of salt and pepper and sauted until lightly browned.

The Shaggy Mane has a very good, delicate, “mushroomy” flavor. One writer states the mushroom reminds them of almonds… I don’t really agree, but there is a bit of a meaty, nutty flavor, but it is mild. If they are sauteed too long, I think the flavor starts to fade into the browned butter too much. The goal is for a light browing on the surface and too cook it long enough for the water to evaporate. Some people recommend pouring the water off, but I think you loose some of the flavor that way. The non-water components of the liquid will get pulled back into the mushrooms. Alternatively, you could pour off the water and use that in a stock for soup or a risotto.

There are a number of recipes available for Shaggy Mane mushrooms. I honestly want to try them all. My method is a simple, easy way that allows the mushrooms’ flavor to be highlighted. But if you have a bumper harvest, then experiment. Please let me know what works well for you!

For more information on Shaggy Mane mushrooms, see my other articles:

 

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Photo References: All photos in this article are mine. If you would like to use any of my photos, please let me know!

 

Edible Wild Mushrooms in the Azores!

(sorry for the rather bad photo… it was taken on a friend’s smartphone!)

Ever since moving to the Azores almost two years ago, I have been searching for wild edible mushrooms. All the locals I asked told me that there were only poisonous mushrooms here on this island, that there are no edible mushrooms here. This puzzled me. The Azores, in general, have high amounts of rainfall and humidity through most of the year, so I figured this place should be a mushroom hunter’s paradise. But time and again, the locals shot me down.

I felt that this was a classic case of fungiphobia. It seems that mushrooms are adored by the Spanish and Portuguese on the mainland, that is the Iberian Penninsula on the European continent, but other than button mushrooms and the occasional portabella, the Azoreans do not seem to be big fans of mushrooms. I am sure there are Azoreans who do love mushrooms, but I have not met them yet. My thought was that the locals believed there were no edible mushrooms on this island, because that is what their parents told them, and their parents learned this from their parents, and on and on.

I thought this climate would be perfect for mushrooms. I even “planted” some mushroom patches of my own. Unfortunately, with me moving in about 6 weeks, it seems that I will never see the fruits (or fruiting bodies, rather) of my labor. I am okay with that. I have turned over many gardens and fruit trees to unknown people who came after me with all my moves in the last decade. But I really thought I would be able to find some edible wild mushrooms here if I could get out there and hunt. Between naturally occuring species and/or accidentally introduced species, I figured that there would need to be at least one wild edible mushroom on this island.

Now, to be honest, I have not been out hunting mushrooms like a professional would. I am rather busy, probably way too busy, with so many other things, that hunting for edible mushrooms when everyone says they don’t exist was not a huge priority for me. However, every time I am outside, my eyes are constantly scanning. I look for insects and birds. I try to identify every plant I step over or pass by, and I look for mushrooms. In truth, I have seen quite a few mushrooms… tiny, frail, ephemeral mushrooms that are probably non-poisonous but not really “edible”. And I have not come across any mushroom larger than a dime. I will also add that the one other Permaculturist on the island which I live has recently told me about a gentleman who is growing edible mushrooms, but I have yet to visit his place.

But today, I have been vindicated!

As I was walking in to work this morning, I spotted a little, round, white ball in the grass. I stepped right over it and kept walking. It took two to three steps before my brain made the recognition… “I think that was a mushroom!”

I went back and took a knee in the grass to study it. It was just a bit smaller and oblong than a golfball. I plucked it from its anchor and took a deep smell of it, and a big smile crossed my face. It was a very small Puffball. I am pretty sure it is a very young Calvatia gigantea. So, here it is. I had found a wild, edible mushroom in the Azores!

In hindsight, I wish I would have left it there in the hopes it would continue growing large enough for a meal, but really wanted to make the correct identification. Some immature gilled mushrooms with their intact universal veil, a number of which are quite poisonous, can resemble a young Puffball. Identification of a small Puffball is quite important. It gets significantly easier as they mature, since some Puffballs can grow larger than a basketball. But I know where I found this one. Other Puffballs will hopefully pop up in the area.

I may have just enough time for some Puffball steaks before I leave… keeping my fingers crossed!

Here is a great page on cooking the Giant Puffball mushroom.

 

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Reishi (Ling Chi) Mushroom

Common Name: Ling Chi, Reishi, Varnished Conk, Ling Zhi, Ling Chih, Mannentake
Scientific Name: Ganoderma lucidum
Family: Ganodermataceae

The beautiful, medicinal Reishi!

The beautiful, medicinal Reishi!

Description:
This shelf-fungus has a shiny (varnished) appearance, and it has been used as a medicinal mushroom in Traditional Chinese Medicine for over 2,000 years! Fruiting Body: 0.8-13.8 inches (2-35 cm) wide and 1.6-3.1 inches (4-8 cm) thick and it is usually fan or kidney-shaped. The growing edge is whitish, and it yellows and turns reddish-brown when it matures. It is a polypore mushroom, so it has pores on the underside of the cap instead of gills. It is found in tropical, sub-tropical, and temperate climates all around the world on a large variety of trees, but prefers warmer-climate, deciduous, hardwood trees (especially oak and maple). There has not been nearly as much outdoor, small-scale cultivation as there is commercial, large-scale cultivation, but it has growing requirements similar to Shiitake, so it should be considered in your Permaculture designs and Forest Gardens.

A classic polypore with pores instead of gills under the cap.

A classic polypore with pores instead of gills under the cap.       (Much thanks to David Spahr (www.mushroom-collecting.com) for the use of his images. Highly recommend his site for those in Maine, New England, or Eastern Canada!)

The closely related Ganoderma tsugae

The closely related Ganoderma tsugae

Closely Related Species (There are a number of closely related species that are found around the world. Defining species is difficult with fungi because they can have such similar characteristics, but is slowly becoming more clear with DNA analysis. The following fungi are the more common similar species found in North America. They likely have similar medicinal properties, but no reliable information/studies can be found):

  • Ganoderma curtisii: smaller, orchre to whitish or only a partly reddish cap, found in eastern and southeastern North America.
  • Ganoderma tsugae: very similar, all white flesh, only grows on conifers, especially Hemlock, found in northern North America.
  • Ganoderma oregonense: larger with larger pores as well, found in Oregon, Washington, and California (prefers cooler climates).
Reishi prefers to grow on hardwoods.

Reishi prefers to grow on hardwoods.

Mushroom Niche: Decomposer and/or Parasitic. The researchers are still trying to decide, although it appears that this mushroom may be what is called a “facultative parasite”. This means the Reishi mushroom may just be an opportunist… if it can survive on a living tree as a parasite, it will do it… if the tree dies, it will live on it as a decomposer… if the fungus is only given decaying wood to grow, it will be fine as living its entire life as a decomposer.
Natural Culture Medium: Stumps, logs, and occasionally from the ground on buried roots.

History:
Reishi has been used for at least 2,000 years in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and became so revered that it is the most commonly rendered mushroom in the art of ancient China, Japan, and Korea – no other mushroom comes close. This mushroom, or other very closely related species, are found all over the globe. Today, it is intentionally grown more often than harvested from the wild, but it is still used primarily as a medicine.

Red is the most common form and likely has the most medicinal benefit, but there are also black, purple, blue, yellow, and white forms/species.

Red is the most common form and likely has the most medicinal benefit, but there are also black, purple, blue, yellow, and white forms/species.

Trivia:

  • Ling Zhi means “tree of life mushroom (herb)” in Chinese.
  • Reishi means “divine” or “spiritual mushroom” in Japanese.
  • Mannentake means “10,000-year mushroom” or “mushroom of immortality” in Japanese as well.
  • If the mushrooms are dried in the sun, the natural ergocalciferols (considered vitamin D “provitamins”) are converted into Vitamin D2 which is readily absorbed by the human body.
  • The stalk of this mushroom can be quite long or almost entirely absent. It depends on the growing conditions, one major factor is the amount of carbon dioxide present during growth.
  • Long-stalked mushrooms are highly valued. They occur in nature more often when growing in cavities of a fallen tree.
  • The cap is most commonly reddish-brown, but can be almost black, purple, blue, yellow, or almost entirely white. These color variations may represent closely related species, but they could just be various forms of the same species. We are awaiting more DNA testing to know for sure. It does appear that the red form has the most health benefits, but there are limited studies to show this.
  • While almost all Reishi is prepared with hot water or alcohol extraction methods, the very thin white margin (not the bitter yellowed part) can be cooked and eaten when fresh. These “Reishi Tips” are reported to have a meaty taste/texture, but I have yet to try them.

General “Mushroom” Vocabulary

  • Mushroom – lay-person term for the spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus
  • Fruiting-body – what is commonly called a “mushroom”… the spore-bearing reproductive structure of a fungus. I will use the term mushroom from here on because that is how what the average person understands.
  • Spore – the reproductive unit. Typically only one microscopic cell. We can consider it like a mushroom “seed”.
  • Hyphae – microscopic, filamentous (thread-like) strand that is the vegetative part of the fungus. It grows from the spore.
  • Mycelium (mycelia is plural) – a mass of hyphae. These will develop a fruiting body to reproduce (release spores).
  • Spawn – material that contains actively growing hyphae of the fungus. Spawn can be used to inoculate the desired culture substrate (logs, branches, stumps, sawdust, etc.) for people to produce a crop of fruiting bodies/mushrooms
  • Stipe – the stem/stalk of the fruiting body/mushroom
  • Pileus – the cap or cap-like structure on top of the stem that supports the spore bearing surface
  • Lamella – the gills (aka ribs) on the undersurface of some fruiting bodies/mushrooms
  • Pores – spongy material with “holes” in it on the undersurface of some fruiting bodies/mushrooms… some mushrooms have these instead of gills
Reishi Tea is one of the most common ways to use this mushroom.

Reishi Tea is one of the most common ways to use this mushroom.

USING THIS MUSHROOM

Primary Uses:

  • Medicinal – There are a number of ways to prepare Reishi (see below). Of all the medicinal mushrooms, even though many of the claims are often overblown, Reishi seems to have the most history and evidence to support it being a medically active. There are dozens of scientific/medical journal articles detailing how this mushroom is effective in improving the human immune system. It settles down the overexpression of the immune system (provides relief from bronchitis, asthma, and seasonal allergies). It settles down inflammatory reactions (improves arthritis and prostate symptoms and atherosclerotic disease). But it also enhances the functions/elements of the immune system that fight off infections, tumors, and cancers. It is a very strong antioxidant, hence its anti-aging reputation. It has direct antimicrobial properties, and can lower cholesterol, blood pressure, and blood sugar, and can even slow down blood clotting. These last few properties need to be considered if a person has or is taking medication for high blood pressure, diabetes, or blood clots/bleeding disorders. If you have any medical problems or are taking any prescription medications, as a physician, I have to recommend that you talk with a trusted medical provider before consuming this mushroom as a medicinal, although it appears to be very safe.
  • Used as a “health” component in teas, candies (chocolates!), energy bars, energy drinks, coffees, beers, wine, etc.

Secondary Uses:

  • Art and craft pieces. Some of these pieces have been passed down in families for generations.
3-5 grams per day is the most common "dose" of this medicinal mushroom.

3-5 grams per day is the most common “dose” of this medicinal mushroom.

Preparation Methods:

  • Typical dose is 3-5 grams per day. Keep in mind the weight of the mushrooms you start with and the volume of liquid you end up with – this will give you the final concentration of your extract. You can then dose accordingly.
  • Decoction (aka “Hot Water Extraction”)  –  This is the most common method of consuming this mushroom. One can use fresh mushrooms, but dried mushrooms are used most frequently.
  • Fresh Mushroom Decoction: break the mushroom into pieces, boil in water for 60 minutes, let steep for 30 minutes, strain, and use. If the lid is kept off the boiling pot, the extract will become more concentrated.
  • Dried Mushroom Decoction: Dried pieces of mushroom are placed into almost boiling water and simmered for 2 hours. If the lid is kept off the boiling pot, the extract will become more concentrated. Some sourced recommend grinding the dried mushroom, and others recommend just breaking into very small pieces. After the liquid has cooled enough, the mushrooms can be squeezed to extract more liquid. Some people with take repeat the process again using the same mushrooms in a second decoction. This ensures all the “goodness” is extracted from the mushrooms.
  • Alcohol Extraction (Tincture): Take a jar of fresh Reishi or a half jar of dried Reishi (the dried mushrooms will expand) and add alcohol to fill the jar to the top. Use 100 proof alcohol – vodka is a good choice as it really has no flavor. Put the top on the jar and let it sit for 6-8 weeks. Then strain the mushrooms and save the alcohol – this is your alcohol extraction, a.k.a. “tincture”. The mushrooms can then be used again in a decoction, as outlined above. This is known as a double extraction. The alcohol and hot water extracts are combined and used (called a double extraction tincture).
  • Elixir – the mushroom is soaked in wine for several months to create an elixir. This elixir can be used straight or mixed into candies, especially chocolates. Note that there are many ways to make an elixir; this is just one method.
  • The extracts are bitter, so add them sparingly in teas or other drinks or liquids (soups, sauces, etc.)
  • Alcohol extracts can last for up to 2 years. Water extracts last significantly less time, but they can be frozen in ice cube trays for easy use in the future.
Young Reishi have a wide, white edge.

Young Reishi have a wide, white edge.     (Much thanks to David Spahr (www.mushroom-collecting.com) for the use of his images. Highly recommend his site for those in Maine, New England, or Eastern Canada!) 

Mature Reishi have none (or almost no) white edge.

Mature Reishi have none (or almost no) white edge.

Some Reishi can have

Mature and young Reishi.

Yield: Variable. Yields on stumps or logs are reported as averaging 1-2 lbs (0.45-0.9 kg) per year

Harvesting: The size of the cap is greatly dependent on the diameter of the log or stump on which it was grown. Mature mushrooms have a thinned cap, and the light-colored margin is not present (and has not been present for a few weeks). This is the perfect time for harvest.

Wild Harvest: NOTE: BE VERY SURE OF THE MUSHROOM YOU HARVEST FROM THE WILD! Fruiting runs from Summer through early Autumn. Make sure to harvest the recent year’s Reishi. Older Reishi don’t contain anywhere near the medicinal quality. Reishi with a white ridge means they are still growing. Remember their location and harvest them a few weeks to months later. Reishi from last year or older will be significantly darker and will be showing signs of rot.

Dried Reishi can be stored for years. Commercially, they are sold whole...

Dried Reishi can be stored for years. Commercially, they are sold whole…

...or sliced.

…or sliced.

Storage: Can be used fresh, but most people dry them. Some people have elaborate drying set ups. Some use an Excaliber dehydrator. Some use solar dehydrators. We can consider exposing the mushrooms to the sun for a bit first which will increase the Vitamin D2 content. Dried Reishi will store well for years.

Cultivation can take place in bags of woodchips...

Cultivation can take place in bags of woodchips…

...bags of sawdust...

…bags of sawdust…

...on small logs in commercial operations...

…on buried logs in commercial operations…

...or on small logs in a backyard!

…or on small logs in a backyard!

CULTIVATING THIS MUSHROOM

Cultivation Substrate: Logs, stumps, bundles of sticks, blocks of sawdust and/or woodchips. Primarily on hardwood, deciduous trees. Grows on maple, oaks, elms, beech, birch, alder, willow, sweetgum, magnolia, locust, and plum, but will likely grow on many other woods as well.

Cultivation Details:

  • Logs are ideally harvested from live, healthy trees in winter when there are a lot of stored carbohydrates. Diameter 3-6 inches (7.5-15 cm) and length 3-5 feet (0.9-1.5 meters), although length is really based on what can be easily handled. Bark is left intact. Inoculation of the logs should take place 2-4 weeks after cutting to allow enough time for the natural anti-fungals to break down but not enough time for other fungi to start colonization.
  • Logs can be inoculated in a traditional manner… placing new logs next to logs/stumps that are currently growing Reishi so that the new logs become infected.
  • Logs can be inoculated with hardwood plugs which are themselves already inoculated with Reishi spawn.
  • Hardwood sticks can be tightly bundled together and treated as a log. I have not seen any specifics for inoculation of the bundles, but I imagine that the bundles could be covered with inoculated sawdust or the larger sticks may take an inoculated plug. Placing the bundles next to currently growing logs should also work.
  • Tightly packed bags of sterilized sawdust or sawdust/woodchip combination are also inoculated and commonly used.
  • Inoculated wood chips are even used in glass jars to grow Reishi.

Spawn Available:

  • Hardwood Plugs – dowels inoculated with mushroom spawn that are hammered in holes (typically 5/16 inch diameter, about an inch deep, and about 2 inches apart) drilled in logs, branches, or stumps.
  • Grain or Sawdust Spawn – these are sometimes available for purchase.
  • In Vitro Culture – pure mycelium in petri dishes… used by more advanced growers.

Incubation of Logs:

  • Inoculated logs can be treated as Shiitake logs. Stack logs close together for the first two months. This helps conserve moisture. If the logs become too dry, then constant watering or soaking for 48 hrs is needed. Allow for good air circulation between the logs. Providing shade (50-75% depending on local conditions) will help keep the moisture balance correct.
  • Short logs can also be put into a garden pot which is then filled with sand or gravel to keep the log upright. About 1/4 to 1/3 of the log itself is covered with the sand/gravel. The entire log, sand/gravel, and pot can be watered if needed. The sand/gravel helps stabilize temperatures and moisture.
  • Logs can also be laid down horizontally and entirely buried (shallow) in sawdust or sand or soil. The mushroom (fruiting body) will grow up through the covering material, and the covering material will stabilize temperature and moisture.
A log with Reishi inoculated hardwood plugs.

A log with Reishi inoculated hardwood plugs.

FRUITING CONDITIONS FOR THIS MUSHROOM

Fruiting Temperature: Typically needs warmer weather (60-95 F/15.5-35 C), and so fruiting often occurs in Summer to early Autumn.

Induction of Fruiting: Typically needs sustained moisture for a few days before fruiting begins. Bark can be dry but the wood underneath should be moist. This can occur with seasonal rains or with watering by us.

Life Span:

  • Time to Begin Fruiting: 6 months to 2 years. A 6-month old inoculated log can be induced to fruit with watering.
  • Years to Maximum Fruiting: 1-2 years
  • Years of Useful Life: Varies on the density of the wood (oak is very dense), the thickness of the log, and the conditions in which the mushroom substrate is kept, but 4-5 years of annual harvesting is common.
Stalks grow longer in high carbon dioxide environments.

Stalks grow longer in high carbon dioxide environments (like in a fallen tree’s cavity or a plastic bag)…

wild

… and then the cap fans out when the mushroom is exposed to “normal” air.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FOR THIS MUSHROOM

Concerns:

  • Some people may develop dry mouth, nose, or throat when consuming this mushroom. This is not common.
  • Some people may develop nosebleeds or blood in the stool after consuming this mushroom. This is not common.
  • People with low blood pressure may consider avoiding this mushroom, and people on high blood pressure medications need to be careful that their blood pressure doesn’t get too low.
  • People with low platelets (thrombocytopenia) or other blood clotting disorders or on “blood thinners” (typically because they had a blood clot or previous heart attack or stroke) should consult their healthcare provider before taking this medication as Reishi can interfere with normal clotting.

 

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Photo References:

  • http://mushroomsworld.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/linhzhi-ganoderma-lucidum_mushroomsworld.jpg
  • http://www.ganodermalucidumbenefits.org/img/BENEFITS%20OF%20GANODERMA%20LUCIDUM.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Jreishi2.jpg
  • http://marnieclark.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Health-Benefits-of-Ganoderma-Lucidum-Medicinal-Mushrooms.jpg
  • http://www.micosalud.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Reishi-Hifas-005.jpg
  • http://pctrs.network.hu/clubpicture/1/2/2/7/_/ganoderma_lucidum_farm_1227895_2417.JPG
  • http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-4zZ7rrpBX5M/UVqI1E-RF1I/AAAAAAAAAHQ/KKN4VxmSgAk/s1600/Que+es+Ganoderma+Lucidum.jpg
  • http://ganodermax.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Ganoderma.jpg
  • http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/mestelle_zach/ganoderma%20tsugae.JPG
  • http://mushroom-collecting.com/Reishi%20nettles%20and%20other%20090%20copy.jpg
  • http://www.ecoyardfarming.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/reishilogs1.jpg
  • http://files.shroomery.org/files/042903-22/42499-reishi-cultivation.jpg
  • http://files.shroomery.org/files/06-34/652309394-Four_polypores_on_same_log.jpg
  • http://www.ecoyardfarming.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/02/logdowels.jpg
  • http://mushroom-collecting.com/Reishi%20nettles%20and%20other%20089%20copy.jpg
  • http://druidgarden.files.wordpress.com/2013/08/reishi.jpg
  • http://www.supernutrients.co.uk/wordpress2/wp-content/uploads/2013/06/REISHI.jpg
  • http://thewellnessdoer.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/l.jpg
  • http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/556809-22107-43.jpg
  • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-w4ECMMSkYhU/T0rZreTlxcI/AAAAAAAAA8Y/stvy2KkMDU4/s1600/Reishi+and+tea.JPG

 

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Seven: 61-70)

As I discussed in my recent article, Fighting Fungophobia (or Mycophobia) …the fear of mushrooms, here is a list of 70 Distinctive Mushrooms:

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part One: 1-10)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Two: 11-20)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Three: 21-30)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Four: 31-40 )
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Five: 41-50)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Six: 51-60)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Seven: 61-70)

This list of mushrooms comes from David Arora, mycologist extraordinaire and author of Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and More. I’ve added photos and a brief paragraph about reported edibility, characteristics, distribution, and habitat. Remember, this is not meant to be an identification guide but rather an introduction to some pretty amazing and representative mushrooms. The mushrooms on this list are all found in the United States (my home), but the majority are also found outside of North America.

A quick note on edibility: I am listing whether the mushroom is considered Edible or Poisonous or Deadly Poisonous. Understand that all mushrooms should be cooked before being eaten. Even edible mushrooms can cause gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, stomach cramping, and/or diarrhea) if the mushrooms are not cooked. Yes, some people can handle raw mushrooms in small amounts (mainly just the common, grocery store “button mushrooms”), but most will succumb to symptoms if they eat enough raw mushrooms, especially wild mushrooms. Also, note that some edible mushrooms may cause gastrointestinal symptoms for some individuals and none for other individuals. One species may cause some symptoms for one person but not for another. It is variable. If it is your first time consuming a new type of mushrooms, go slow. Eat a little bit one day, and if you do well, then consume a bit more the next day. If you still have no problems, then you can likely eat that type of mushroom with no issues. Finally, note that most anyone has a good chance of getting gastrointestinal symptoms if they eat an excessively large amount of mushrooms of any type. Just like if a person eats a whole pot of bean-laden chili… watch out! Keep it in moderation, but have fun!

Seventy mushroom listings and photographs will take a lot of space, so I am going to break the list up into ten species segments. I recommend reading David Arora’s books as well as some local field guides. Then go outside and get to know the fungus among us… er, you, I mean.

Here are the final ten:

61. Giant Puffball (Calvatia gigantea group, C. booniana)
62. Sierran or Sculpted Puffball (Calvatia sculpta)
63. Dead Man’s Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)
64. Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)
65. Dog Stinkhorn (Mutinus caninus, M. elegans)
66. Common Morel (Morchella esculenta)
67. Black Morel (Morchella elata)
68. False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)
69. Fluted Black Elfin Saddle (Helvella lacunosa)
70. Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

Here is the list again with photos and accompanying paragraph of additional information:

Giant Puffballs (Calvatia gigantea)

Giant Puffballs (Calvatia gigantea)

Giant Puffballs Calvatia booniana)

Giant Puffballs Calvatia booniana)

61. Giant Puffballs (Calvatia gigantea group, C. booniana): Edible. These mushrooms are softball to basketball-sized and are edible when young and white throughout, before the skin breaks into brownish scales and the mushroom disintegrates. Puffballs can have a laxative effect on some people, but not most. Fruiting Body: 3.9-28 inches (10-70 cm) in diameter, but can get to 59 inches (150 cm)! It is very common and found in Europe and North America in pastures, fields, and forests.
Sierran or Sculpted Puffball (Calvatia sculpta)

Sierran or Sculpted Puffball (Calvatia sculpta)

Sierran or Sculpted Puffball (Calvatia sculpta)

Sierran or Sculpted Puffball (Calvatia sculpta)

62. Sierran or Sculpted Puffball (Calvatia sculpta): Edible.  One of the more distinctive mushrooms with an egg shape and pyramidal or polygonal “warts”. Said to be one of the best tasting puffballs. Fruiting Body: 2.8-7.1 inches (7-18 cm) tall and wide. This is an uncommon species found in western North America in coniferous forests at higher elevations (2,500+ feet/750+ meters), but also found in Brazil (researchers are still trying to determine the cause of this).
Dead Man's Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)

Dead Man’s Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)

Dead Man's Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)

Dead Man’s Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius)

63. Dead Man’s Foot (Pisolithus tinctorius): Not Edible. When young, this unique mushroom looks like a small, dark puffball. One a good day, the mature specimen looks like a dusty stump or root, but on a bad day it could look like a pile of excrement. It is used as an aromatic seasoning in Europe when unripe (known as “Bohemian Truffle”), and it is a medicinal in China. Fruiting Body: 2.0-11.8 inches (5-30 cm) tall1.6-7.9 inches (4-20 cm) broad. Widely distributed through North America, Europe, and Asia. Grows solitary, widely scattered, or in small groups on the ground along roadsides, abandoned lots, hardpacked, poor, and sandy soils. It forms symbiotic relationships with plants, but it is not particularly picky about its partner.

 

Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)

Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)

Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)

An “egg” of the Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus)

64. Common Stinkhorn (Phallus impudicus): Edible. This mushroom gets its name from the smell (like rotting meat) and the shape (horn, pencil, or phallic are all terms used). The fruiting body is tall with a dark cone-shaped head covered in strong-smelling slime (gleba). This mushroom can grow as fast as 5.9 inches (15 cm) per hour! The immature fruiting body (called an “egg”) has an inner, white layer called the receptaculum that is edible raw or cooked, without the smell! Fruiting Body – Egg: 1.2-2.4 inches (3-6 cm) tall. Fruiting Body – Stalk: 3.9-11.8 inches (10-30 cm) tall with a cap 0.6-1.6 inches (1.5-4 cm) broad. Common and widely distributed in Europe and North America, but also found in Asia, Central America, Africa, and Australia. Associated with rotting wood in deciduous and coniferous forests and grassy areas.

 

Dog Stinkhorn (Mutinus caninus)

Dog Stinkhorn (Mutinus caninus)

Elegant Stinkhorn (Mutinus elegans)

Elegant Stinkhorn (Mutinus elegans)

65. Dog Stinkhorn, Elegant Stinkhorn (Mutinus caninus, M. elegans): EdibleThese closely related Stinkhorns are also edible in the “egg” stage and still have a rotten odor when mature. They are smaller than the Common Stinkhorn above. They have no cap, but still have a slimy gleba. Fruiting Body – Egg: 0.4-1.2 inches (1-3 cm) tall. Fruiting Body –  Stalk: 0.4-5.9 inches (1-15 cm) tall. These species are commonly found in eastern North Amercia, Britain, Europe, and Asia.
Common Morel (Morchella esculenta)

Common Morel (Morchella esculenta)

Common Morel (Morchella esculenta)

Common Morel (Morchella esculenta)

66. Common Morel (Morchella esculenta). Edible (choice!) Another one of my favorite mushrooms (yum!), and it is almost unmistakable. The conical cap is pitted or honeycombed and tan to yellow to buff in color. The interior is hollow. All Morels should be cooked before eating. Cap: 1.2-4.3 inches (3-11 cm) high and 0.8-2.4 inches (2-6 cm) broad. Found alone, grouped, our in large clusters in a wide variety of locations, but most common under hardwoods and in areas recently burned. It is found in North America (common in eastern North America), but also in Brazil, the UK, Europe, and many other locations around the world.

 

Black Morels (Morchella elata)

Black Morels (Morchella elata)

Black Morels (Morchella angusticeps)

Black Morels (Morchella angusticeps)

67. Black Morels (Morchella elata, M. angusticeps, etc.): Edible (choice!). There are actually a number of species considered “Black Morels”, and it has only been in the last few years that DNA testing has shown these to be distinct species… this means they all look really similar. They also all taste really good! All Morels should be cooked before eating – some people can have “allergies” them, but we don’t know exactly what causes this. As with all new mushrooms, small samples are the best way to start. Cap: 0.8-7.1 inches (2-18 cm) high and 0.8-3.9 inches (2-10 cm) broad. Widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere within, or on the edges, or forests and in disturbed or burned areas.

 

False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)

False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)

False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)

False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta)

68. False Morel (Gyromitra esculenta): Edible to Poisonous to Deadly Poisonous. This is the “feared” mimick of the edible Morels. The key identifying factor is the folded, or brain-like, appearance instead of the honeycombed or pitted cap in true Morels. Some people can eat these mushrooms with no problems. Some eat these mushrooms and develop diarrhea (sometimes bloody), vomiting, vertigo, headaches, and tremor – almost everyone recovers. However, some eat this mushroom and go on to develop organ failure, seizures, coma, and death. It appears that there is both a variation in response to the toxins and a variation to the amount of toxins produced in certain areas of the world. Europe has more deaths, and North America has almost none. Despite this, many people still eat this mushroom and consider it a delicacy. I recommend avoiding it! Cap: 1.2-4.7 inches (3-12 cm) tall and broad. Commonly found in temperate climate coniferous and deciduous forests, and is more common on disturbed ground.

 

Fluted Black Elfin Saddle or Slate Grey Saddle (Helvella lacunosa)

Fluted Black Elfin Saddle or Slate Grey Saddle (Helvella lacunosa)

Fluted Black Elfin Saddle or Slate Grey Saddle (Helvella lacunosa)

Fluted Black Elfin Saddle or Slate Grey Saddle (Helvella lacunosa)

 69. Fluted Black Elfin Saddle or Slate Grey Saddle (Helvella lacunosa): Edible (with caution). The dark, convoluted cap with fluted stem makes this mushroom pretty easy to identify. Many people consider it very good, others find it bland. It is almost always eaten without the tough stalk. It has recently been reported to contain toxins, but the only reports of illness (gastrointestinal upset) is when it is eaten raw. Cap: 0.8-2.0 inches (2-5 cm) wide, but can get to 3.9 inches (10 cm). Found under pines, oaks, Douglas fir, and grassland nearby these trees in North America, Europe, China, and Japan.
Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia)

70. Orange Peel Fungus (Aleuria aurantia): Edible. This fungus’ name is very appropriate… it really looks like a discarded orange peel! It starts off rather round, but becomes cup/saucer-shaped to flat and wavy with age. As with so many other mushrooms, some collectors find that it tastes good, while others find it bland. David Aurora states that because it is so frail, it hardly seems worth the trouble of collecting. Fruiting Body: 0.4-3.9 inches (1-10 cm) across. Found on bare or disturbed soils in Europe and North America.

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 Photo References:

  • http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1157/1358565822_1890b9ee44_o.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8c/Calvatia_booniana.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/45/Calvatia_sculpta_49007_cropped.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Calvatia_sculpta_fs-04.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Pisolithus_arhizus_bk-01.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Gasteromycetes/Pisolithus%20tinctorius/Pisolithus%20tinctorius%20eucalyptus.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b1/Phallus_impudicus.jpg
  • http://rachisaurus.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/phallus-impudicus-stinkhorn1.jpg
  • http://letsdeliquesce.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/img_3698.jpg
  • http://www.naturamediterraneo.eu/Public/data4/lipo/Mutinus%20elegans%202.jpg_20061124193336_Mutinus%20elegans%202.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/Morchella_esculenta_84915.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Morchella_esculenta_-_DE_-_TH_-_2013-05-02_-_02.JPG
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/Morchella_elata_83538.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/90/Morchella_angusticeps_38336.jpg
  • http://www.fungalpunknature.co.uk/Fungi/G%20Esculenta%206.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Gyromitra_esculenta(fs-01).jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/10/Helvella_lacunosa_1977.jpg
  • http://www.fungalpunknature.co.uk/Fungi/Helvellalacunosa.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/35/Aleuria_aurantia_1.jpg
  • http://fc04.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2012/130/4/2/aleuria_aurantia_by_jakhajay-d4za9sn.jpg

 

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Six: 51-60)

As I discussed in my recent article, Fighting Fungophobia (or Mycophobia) …the fear of mushrooms, here is a list of 70 Distinctive Mushrooms:

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part One: 1-10)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Two: 11-20)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Three: 21-30)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Four: 31-40 )
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Five: 41-50)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Six: 51-60)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Seven: 61-70)

This list of mushrooms comes from David Arora, mycologist extraordinaire and author of Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and More. I’ve added photos and a brief paragraph about reported edibility, characteristics, distribution, and habitat. Remember, this is not meant to be an identification guide but rather an introduction to some pretty amazing and representative mushrooms. The mushrooms on this list are all found in the United States (my home), but the majority are also found outside of North America.

A quick note on edibility: I am listing whether the mushroom is considered Edible or Poisonous or Deadly Poisonous. Understand that all mushrooms should be cooked before being eaten. Even edible mushrooms can cause gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, stomach cramping, and/or diarrhea) if the mushrooms are not cooked. Yes, some people can handle raw mushrooms in small amounts (mainly just the common, grocery store “button mushrooms”), but most will succumb to symptoms if they eat enough raw mushrooms, especially wild mushrooms. Also, note that some edible mushrooms may cause gastrointestinal symptoms for some individuals and none for other individuals. One species may cause some symptoms for one person but not for another. It is variable. If it is your first time consuming a new type of mushrooms, go slow. Eat a little bit one day, and if you do well, then consume a bit more the next day. If you still have no problems, then you can likely eat that type of mushroom with no issues. Finally, note that most anyone has a good chance of getting gastrointestinal symptoms if they eat an excessively large amount of mushrooms of any type. Just like if a person eats a whole pot of bean-laden chili… watch out! Keep it in moderation, but have fun!

Seventy mushroom listings and photographs will take a lot of space, so I am going to break the list up into ten species segments. I recommend reading David Arora’s books as well as some local field guides. Then go outside and get to know the fungus among us… er, you, I mean.

Here are the next ten:

51. Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)
52. Hericiums (Hericium species)
53. Hedgehog Mushroom (Hydnum repandum)
54. Pink-Tipped Coral Mushroom (Ramaria botrytis)
55. Cauliflower Mushrooms (Sparassis species)
56. Scaly Chanterelle (Gomphus floccosus group)
57. White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)
58. Chanterelle, Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)
59. Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpet, Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides)
60. Witch’s Butter (Tremella mesenterica)

Here is the list again with photos and accompanying paragraph of additional information:

Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)

Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor)

Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor) showing multiple colors... hence its name!

Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor) showing multiple colors… hence its name!

51. Turkey Tail (Trametes versicolor): Not Edible. This is another shelf fungus. The name versicolor means “several colors”, and that is an apt description. Cap size: 0.8-2.8 inches (2-7 cm) but can get to 3.9 inches (10 cm). It is very common and found around the world. Typically in groups, rows, and large masses or overlapping clusters on logs, stumps, and fallen branches of hardwoods, especially oaks.
Lion's Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)

Lion’s Mane Mushroom (Hericium erinaceus)

Hericium coralloides

Hericium coralloides

52. Hericium, Lion’s Mane (Hericium species): Edible.  One of the more distinctive mushroom genera with its classic, white icicle-like appearance. There are a number of species in this genus, and some can be quite large (over 50 lbs/23 kg). All four North American species are edible (best when young) and virtually unmistakable. The fruiting body is 3.9-30 inches (10-75 cm) broad with tufts of spines hanging from them. Found growing solitary or in small groups on dead trees, stumps, logs, or fallen branches in many places around the world.
Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum repandum)

Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum repandum)

Note the on these Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum repandum)

Note the spines on these Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum repandum)

53. Hedgehog Mushrooms (Hydnum repandum): Edible (choice!) This edible mushroom has rather unique spines hanging from the underside of the cap instead of gills or pores, and the stalk is often off-centered. It is commonly compared to a Chanterlle (see below) with a sweet, nutty flavor. It is sometimes bitter or peppery, but that usually disappears with cooking. Cap size: 0.8-6.7 inches (2-17 cm), but can get to 9.8 inches (25 cm). Found commonly in northern temperate climate zones and grows solitary, scattered, or in groups on the ground under hardwoods and conifers, sometimes in fairy rings.

 

Pink-Tipped or Clustered Coral Mushroom (Ramaria botrytis)

Pink-Tipped or Clustered Coral Mushroom (Ramaria botrytis)

Pink-Tipped or Clustered Coral Mushroom (Ramaria botrytis)

Pink-Tipped or Clustered Coral Mushroom (Ramaria botrytis)

54. Pink-Tipped or Clustered Coral Mushroom (Ramaria botrytis): Edible (with caution). Some people rate this mushroom as choice, but others claim it causes diarrhea. David Aurora recommends trying it, because it is so large and fleshy and potentially good! This is a large coral fungus which starts off white or pale and eventually turns brown to tan with pink, purple, or red tips that fade with age. Fruiting Body: 2.8-7.9 inches (7-20 cm) tall and 2.4-11.8 inches (6-30 cm) in diameter. Common and widely distributed around the world under broadleaf trees.

 

Sparassis crispa

Sparassis crispa

Sparassis brevipes

Sparassis brevipes

55. Cauliflower Mushrooms (Sparassis species): Edible. (choice, best when young and still creamy white). This is another unique coral mushroom that is difficult to mistake. The characteristic fruiting body is composed of wavy, flattened, leafy, or ribbonlike lobes. They fruit at the base of trees, and will fruit year after year in the same spot. Some mushrooms will have a spicy-fragrant odor as well. Fruiting Body: 6.3-23.7 inches (16-60 cm) tall and wide. They grow as parasites on hardwoods (especially oak) and coniferous. Most common in Europe and North America.

 

Scaly Chanterelle (Gomphus floccosus)

Scaly Chanterelle (Gomphus floccosus)

Scaly Chanterelle (Gomphus floccosus)

Scaly Chanterelle (Gomphus floccosus)

56. Scaly Chanterelle (Gomphus floccosus group). Poisonous. This mushroom has a classic vase-shape or trumpet-shape, classic in chanterelles. The surface can be red to yellow to orange, but often faded and not very bright. While some find this mushroom delicious, most will develop nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Fruiting Body: 1.2-5.9 inches (3-15 cm) broad and 2.0-7.9 inches (5-20 cm) tall. It is found in forests under conifers (fir, pine, hemlock, etc.) across North America and Asia.

 

White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)

White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)

White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)

White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus)

57. White Chanterelle (Cantharellus subalbidus): Edible (choice!). Here is another chanterelle that is a great edible. It has white flesh that bruises to yellow-orange-brown. It only lives on the west coast of North America: California to the Pacific Northwest. Cap: 1.6-5.9 inches (4-15 cm) across.  Found under conifers.

 

Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)

Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)

Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)

Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius)

58. Chanterelle, Golden Chanterelle (Cantharellus cibarius): Edible (choice!). This is the prized culinary Chanterelle, and one of my favorite mushrooms. It has a beautiful yellow to orange color with a light, fruity frangrance. There are a few look-alikes, so be certain of your identification. Cap: 1.2-5.9inches (3-15 cm) wide, but can get to 9.8 inches (25 cm). Commonly found in overlapping clusters on stumps and logs, but occasionally on living trees, of conifers and hardwoods. Widely distributed across northern Europe, North America, and Asia, but also found in Africa.

 

Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpet, Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides)

Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpet, Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides)

Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpet, Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides)

Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpet, Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides)

59. Horn of Plenty, Black Trumpet, Black Chanterelle (Craterellus cornucopioides): Edible (choice!) This is a difficult mushroom to find due to its dark color, but it has a good flavor. I’ve made a wild mushroom risotto with this mushroom that was fantastic. Cap: 0.8-2.75 inches (2-7 cm) wide, but can get to 6 inches (15 cm). Found in the forests of North America, Europe, and eastern Asia under broadleaf trees (especially beech and oak).

 

Witch's Butter, Golden Jelly Fungus (Tremella mesenterica)

Witch’s Butter, Golden Jelly Fungus (Tremella mesenterica)

Witch's Butter, Golden Jelly Fungus (Tremella mesenterica)

Witch’s Butter, Golden Jelly Fungus (Tremella mesenterica)

60. Witch’s Butter, Golden Jelly Fungus (Tremella mesenterica): Edible. Many people are unfamiliar with the jelly fungi and their rubbery, gelatinous consistency. Witch’s Butter is a parasite of a fungus that decays wet wood (fungi in the genus Peniophora). While edible, this common jelly fungus is flavorless. Fruiting Body: 2-3 inches (5-7.5 cm) wide and 1-2 inches (2.5-5.0 cm) tall with an irregular shape. Found in crevices and cracks of decaying wood of deciduous and mixed forests in temperate and tropical climates around the globe except Antarctica.

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 Photo References:

  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Trametes_versicolor(mgw-02).jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/25/Trametes_versicolor_2.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Hericium_erinaceus(nw-01).jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/12/2009-09-25_Hericium_coralloides_(Scop.)_Pers_58068_crop.jpg
  • http://www.duinkerken.nu/paddestoelen/images/Gele%20Stekelzwam%20-%20Hydnum%20repandum%20-%201200×947.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/2012-08-29_Hydnum_repandum_L_256175_crop.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Ramaria_botrytis(Exeter-2004-49).jpg
  • http://www.mushroomhobby.com/TripNotes/20071103-04%20SPSP%20AND%20JSF/Ramaria%20botrytis.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Sparassis_brevipes_-_Robichaux.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/cc/Sparassis_crispa.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Gomphales/Gomphus%20floccosus/Gomphus%20floccosus5.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Gomphus_floccosus_6051.JPG
  • http://www.northwestmushroomers.org/images/Cantharellus_subalbidus.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Cantharellus_subalbidus_bk-01.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/2007-07-14_Cantharellus_cibarius.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/2007-07-14_Cantharellus_cibarius_Detail.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Craterellus_cornucopioides(mgw-01).jpg
  • http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/pictures/data/8/Mustatorvisieni.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/91/Tremella_mesenterica.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f2/Tremella_mesenterica_JPL2.jpg

 

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Five: 41-50)

As I discussed in my recent article, Fighting Fungophobia (or Mycophobia) …the fear of mushrooms, here is a list of 70 Distinctive Mushrooms:

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part One: 1-10)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Two: 11-20)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Three: 21-30)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Four: 31-40 )
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Five: 41-50)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Six: 51-60)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Seven: 61-70)

This list of mushrooms comes from David Arora, mycologist extraordinaire and author of Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and More. I’ve added photos and a brief paragraph about reported edibility, characteristics, distribution, and habitat. Remember, this is not meant to be an identification guide but rather an introduction to some pretty amazing and representative mushrooms. The mushrooms on this list are all found in the United States (my home), but the majority are also found outside of North America.

A quick note on edibility: I am listing whether the mushroom is considered Edible or Poisonous or Deadly Poisonous. Understand that all mushrooms should be cooked before being eaten. Even edible mushrooms can cause gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, stomach cramping, and/or diarrhea) if the mushrooms are not cooked. Yes, some people can handle raw mushrooms in small amounts (mainly just the common, grocery store “button mushrooms”), but most will succumb to symptoms if they eat enough raw mushrooms, especially wild mushrooms. Also, note that some edible mushrooms may cause gastrointestinal symptoms for some individuals and none for other individuals. One species may cause some symptoms for one person but not for another. It is variable. If it is your first time consuming a new type of mushrooms, go slow. Eat a little bit one day, and if you do well, then consume a bit more the next day. If you still have no problems, then you can likely eat that type of mushroom with no issues. Finally, note that most anyone has a good chance of getting gastrointestinal symptoms if they eat an excessively large amount of mushrooms of any type. Just like if a person eats a whole pot of bean-laden chili… watch out! Keep it in moderation, but have fun!

Seventy mushroom listings and photographs will take a lot of space, so I am going to break the list up into ten species segments. I recommend reading David Arora’s books as well as some local field guides. Then go outside and get to know the fungus among us… er, you, I mean.

Here are the next ten:

41. King Bolete, Porcini (Boletus edulis)
42. Queen Bolete (Boletus aereus, B. regineus)
43. Manzanita Bolete (Leccinum manzanitae)
44. Aspen Boletes (Leccinum insigne and close relatives)
45. Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces floccopus a.k.a. S. strobilaceus)
46. Beefsteak Fungus (Fistulina hepatica)
47. Hen of the Woods, Maitake (Grifola frondosa)
48. Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus)
49. Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum group)
50. Varnished Conk, Reishi, (Ganoderma lucidum, G. tsugae, G. oregonense)

Here is the list again with photos and accompanying paragraph of additional information:

King Bolete, Porcini (Boletus edulis)

King Bolete, Porcini (Boletus edulis)

King Bolete, Porcini (Boletus edulis)

King Bolete, Porcini (Boletus edulis)

41. King Bolete, Porcini (Boletus edulis): Edible (choice!) This is one of the most prized mushrooms in Europe (a.k.a. Porcini or Porcino, Cep, or Penny Bun), and it is one of my favorite mushrooms. It has a large cap that can be brownish to red, has a reticulate stalk, white pores, olive-brown spore print, and flesh that does not bruise. Cap size: 3.1-11.8 inches (8-30 cm) or more. Common in cool-temperate to subtropical regions around the Northern Hemisphere, and they have been introduced in Africa, Australia, and New Zealand. Solitary, scattered, or in groups under conifers (pine, spruce, hemlock, fir), but also with hardwoods (oak, birch, chestnut). The King Bolete forms a symbiotic relationship with the roots of its host plant.
Queen Bolete (Boletus aereus)

Queen Bolete (Boletus aereus)

Queen Bolete (Boletus regineus)

Queen Bolete (Boletus regineus)

42. Queen Bolete (Boletus aereus, B. regineus): Edible (choice!)  Boletus aereus is another prized mushrooms in Europe (a.k.a. Porcino Nero), and it was thought to be the same species as Boletus regineus found in California. Another closely related species is Boletus variipes found in eastern North America. The cap is dark brown to black when young, but then fades to reddish-brown often with white blotches. Cap size: 2.0-5.9 inches (5-15 cm), but can get to7.9 inches (20 cm). Found growing solitary or scattered and in groups under mixed woods, but especially with oaks.

 

Manzanita Bolete (Leccinum manzanitae)

Manzanita Bolete (Leccinum manzanitae)

Manzanita Bolete (Leccinum manzanitae)

Manzanita Bolete (Leccinum manzanitae)

43. Manzanita Bolete (Leccinum manzanitae): Edible. This large mushroom is a dark red to brown with small dark “scabers” on a light stalk. Cap size: 2.8-7.9 inches (7-20 cm), but can get to 11.8 inches (30 cm). Found only in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Canada in association with Manzanita or Madrone trees.

 

Aspen Boletes (Leccinum insigne)

Aspen Boletes (Leccinum insigne)

Aspen Boletes (Leccinum insigne)

Aspen Boletes (Leccinum insigne)

44. Aspen Boletes (Leccinum insigne and close relatives): Edible. As with the Manzanita Bolete above, all Leccinum species are Boletes with “scabers” – small, rigid projections on the stalk.  All the closely related species are very similar in appearance and are all edible. Bright orange to reddish or brownish cap with a light stalk covered in dark scabers. Cap size: 2.4-6.7 inches (6-17 cm). Common and widely distributed in North America, primarily with Aspen trees.

 

Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)

Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)

Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)

Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces strobilaceus)

45. Old Man of the Woods (Strobilomyces floccopus a.k.a. S. strobilaceus): Edible (taste is bland but better in young specimens). This unique mushroom is difficult to mistake. The characteristic cap is covered on top with shaggy scales and the pores are large. Flesh is light, turning to red/orange and then dark when bruised. Cap size: 1.6-5.9 inches (4-15 cm). Found in hardwood (espicially oak) and coniferous forests in Europe and North America.

 

Beefsteak Fungus, Ox Tongue (Fistulina hepatica)

Beefsteak Fungus, Ox Tongue (Fistulina hepatica)

Beefsteak Fungus, Ox Tongue (Fistulina hepatica)

Beefsteak Fungus, Ox Tongue (Fistulina hepatica)

46. Beefsteak Fungus, Ox Tongue (Fistulina hepatica). Edible. This is a orange-red to dark red shelf, or bracket, fungus with pores that was used as a meat substitute in the past. The name refers to that history as well as its appearance. Interestingly, it has a taste that some say is citrus-like and others just say is sour. Fruiting Body: 2.8-11.8 inches (7-30 cm) broad and 0.8-2.4 inches (2-6 cm) thick. It is found at the base of hardwood trees and stumps, commonly oak and chestnut.

 

Hen of the Woods, Maitake (Grifola frondosa)

Hen of the Woods, Maitake (Grifola frondosa)

Hen of the Woods, Maitake (Grifola frondosa)

Hen of the Woods, Maitake (Grifola frondosa)

47. Hen of the Woods, Maitake (Grifola frondosa): Edible (choice!). Here is another of my favorite culinary mushrooms. This is another shelf fungus that is gray to brown and wavy that resemble a fluffed-up hen. The whole fruiting body of overlapping, fan or spoon-shapped caps can grow up to 40 inches (100 cm) across, but each cap is 0.8-2.8 inches (2-7 cm) wide. This fungus also has noticable pores. Only the young and tender caps are worth eating. Found in North America and Asia, but is most common in eastern North America and Japan, at the base of hardwoods (especially oaks).

 

Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus)

Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus)

Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus)

Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus)

48. Sulfur Shelf (Laetiporus sulphureus): Edible (but some may have allergic reactions, so eat it in small amounts at first). This almost unmistakable mushroom is a large, fleshy, velvety, shelflike fungus. This species is also called “Chicken of the Woods”, and it is said to have a chicken-like texture and mild flavour. As with most shelf mushrooms, the younger and more tender specimens are best. One specimen attained the weight of 100 lbs (over 45 kg)! Fruiting Body: 2.0-27.5 inches (5-70 cm) wide and up to 1.6 inches (4 cm ) thick . Commonly found in overlapping clusters on stumps and logs, but occasionally on living trees, of conifers and hardwoods. Widely distributed across Europe and North America.

 

Artist's Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)

Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)

Artist's Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)

Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum)

49. Artist’s Conk (Ganoderma applanatum group): Not Edible. This large shelf fungus has a white pore surface that will turn dark or shaded when rubbed or scratched with a sharp instrument, and has become known as an artist’s drawing medium. Fruiting Body: 2.0-29.5 inches (5-75 cm) or more wide and 0.8-7.9 inches (2-20 cm) thick and is usually fan-shaped. Found on almost every hardwood in North America, it can also be found on conifers and hardwoods around the world.

 

Varnished Conk, Reishi, Ling Chih (Ganoderma lucidum)

Varnished Conk, Reishi, Ling Chih (Ganoderma lucidum)

Varnished Conk, Reishi, Ling Chih (Ganoderma tsugae)

Varnished Conk, Reishi, Ling Chih (Ganoderma tsugae)

50. Varnished Conk, Reishi, Ling Chih (Ganoderma lucidum, G. tsugae, G. oregonense): Not Edible. This shelf-fungus has a shiny (varnished) appearance, and it has been used as a medicinal mushroom in Traditional Chinese Medicine for over 2,000 years! Fruiting Body: 0.8-13.8 inches (2-35 cm) wide and 1.6-3.1 inches (4-8 cm) thick and is usually fan or kidney-shaped. Found in tropical and temperate climates around the world on a large variety of trees, but prefers deciduous trees (especially maple). It is actually rare in the wild and is commonly cultivated on logs or woodchips.

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 Photo References:

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/48/Steinpilz_2006_08_3.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b0/Boletus_edulis_EtgHollande_041031_091.jpg
  •  http://www.mykoweb.com/photos/large/Boletus_aereus(mgw-03).jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/photos/large/Boletus_regius(mgw-01).jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fc/Leccinum_manzanitae_29496_crop.jpg
  • http://farm6.staticflickr.com/5285/5236391145_43837cf946_o.jpg
  • http://web.cecs.pdx.edu/~antoy/private/mushrooms/00058.jpg
  • http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1391/1164663432_9f3482ff93_o.jpg
  • http://www.funghiitaliani.it/uploads/monthly_10_2008/post-3472-1222976138.jpg
  • http://www.ohoubach.cz/obrazky/galerie/1215_1.JPG
  • http://www.funghiitaliani.it/uploads/monthly_10_2008/post-3472-1222976138.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus_allies/Strobilomyces%20floccopus%20(1).jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/28/Fistulina_hepatica.JPG
  • http://www.stridvall.se/fungi/albums/album51/AAAA2525.jpg
  • http://www.wildaboutbritain.co.uk/gallery/files/4/3/8/3/IMG_0437.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8b/Grifola_frondosa_cross-section.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/8b/Laetiporus_sulphureus_JPG01.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/Laetiporus_sulphureus_big.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Ganoderma_applanatum_G2.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/photos/large/Ganoderma_applanatum(mgw-QC-01).jpg
  • http://ganodermax.info/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Ganoderma.jpg
  • http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/2011/mestelle_zach/ganoderma%20tsugae.JPG

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Four: 31-40)

As I discussed in my recent article, Fighting Fungophobia (or Mycophobia) …the fear of mushrooms, here is a list of 70 Distinctive Mushrooms:

Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part One: 1-10)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Two: 11-20)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Three: 21-30)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Four: 31-40 )
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Five: 41-50)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Six: 51-60)
Seventy Distinctive Mushrooms (Part Seven: 61-70)

This list of mushrooms comes from David Arora, mycologist extraordinaire and author of Mushrooms Demystified and All That the Rain Promises and More. I’ve added photos and a brief paragraph about reported edibility, characteristics, distribution, and habitat. Remember, this is not meant to be an identification guide but rather an introduction to some pretty amazing and representative mushrooms. The mushrooms on this list are all found in the United States (my home), but the majority are also found outside of North America.

A quick note on edibility: I am listing whether the mushroom is considered Edible or Poisonous or Deadly Poisonous. Understand that all mushrooms should be cooked before being eaten. Even edible mushrooms can cause gastrointestinal upset (nausea, vomiting, stomach cramping, and/or diarrhea) if the mushrooms are not cooked. Yes, some people can handle raw mushrooms in small amounts (mainly just the common, grocery store “button mushrooms”), but most will succumb to symptoms if they eat enough raw mushrooms, especially wild mushrooms. Also, note that some edible mushrooms may cause gastrointestinal symptoms for some individuals and none for other individuals. One species may cause some symptoms for one person but not for another. It is variable. If it is your first time consuming a new type of mushrooms, go slow. Eat a little bit one day, and if you do well, then consume a bit more the next day. If you still have no problems, then you can likely eat that type of mushroom with no issues. Finally, note that most anyone has a good chance of getting gastrointestinal symptoms if they eat an excessively large amount of mushrooms of any type. Just like if a person eats a whole pot of bean-laden chili… watch out! Keep it in moderation, but have fun!

Seventy mushroom listings and photographs will take a lot of space, so I am going to break the list up into ten species segments. I recommend reading David Arora’s books as well as some local field guides. Then go outside and get to know the fungus among us… er, you, I mean.

Here are the next ten:

31. Sulfur Tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare)
32. Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)
33. Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)
34. Pine Spikes (Chroogomphus species)
35. Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)
36. Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)
37. Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus, B. regius)
38. Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas)
39. Apple Bolete (Boletus frostii)
40. White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

Here is the list again with photos and accompanying paragraph of additional information:

Hypholoma fasciculare

Sulfur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare)

Hypholoma fasciculare

Sulfur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare)

31. Sulfur tuft (Hypholoma fasciculare): Poisonous. This clumping mushroom is bitter tasting and can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and convulsions. Often bright yellow, but can be yellow-green or yellow-orange as well. Cap size: 0.8-2.0 inches (2-5 cm), but can get to 3.5 inches (9 cm). Common in North America, Europe, and Asia growing on decaying/dead deciduous and coniferous wood (wood can be above or below ground).

 

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa)

32. Scaly Pholiota (Pholiota squarrosa): Poisonous. (it was once considered edible by some, but is now considered poisonous… meaning that while some can eat it and have no problems, most people will develop vomiting and diarrhea if they consume this mushroom, especially if consumed in combination with alcohol). This is a pretty unique mushroom. The cap may resemble other mushrooms, but the scaly stalk is fairly unique. Cap size: 1.2-3.9 inches (3-10 cm), but can get to 5.9 inches (15 cm). Common in North America and Europe. Found growing in both coniferous and deciduous forests, often at the base of trees.

 

 

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus)

33. Violet Cortinarius (Cortinarius violaceus): Edible (not very good). This mushroom is a beautiful deep purple (almost black at times) and is often “wooly” in appearance due to minute “hairs” or scales. Cap size: 1.4-4.7 inches (3.5-12 cm), but can get to 5.9 inches (15 cm). Found in North and Central America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, but it is not very common (except in the Pacific Northwest). In North America, it favors coniferous trees, and in Europe it favors deciduous trees.

 

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species)

34. Pine Spikes or Wine-Cap Chroogomphus (Chroogomphus species): Edible. These species are very similar in appearance and are all edible. The dark, red pigment may harmlessly turn urine red (just like beet juice), so be warned before you eat them. The decurrent gills (gills that start to run down the stalk) are almost always present. Cap size: 0.8-5.9 inches (2-15 cm). Common in the Northern Hemisphere. Found growing under pine trees and other conifers, often with Slippery Jacks .

 

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

Slippery Jacks (Suillus species)

35. Slippery Jacks (Suillus species): Edible. The Suillus species are commonly known as “slippery jacks” since most caps are slimy. They are in the order Boletales which means they have a sponge-like layer of tubes on the underside of the cap instead of gills. There are over 70 species found in North America. All are considered edible, but none are highly prized considering their slimy nature. Cap size: 1.2-7.1 inches (3-18 cm). Found in temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere, they have also been introduced to the Southern Hemisphere. Most commonly found with pine trees and occasionally with other conifers.

 

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis)

36. Admirable Bolete (Boletus mirabilis): Edible (very good). This bolete is pretty unmistakable with its maroon-brown cap and yellow pores, but it is not that widely distributed. It is important not to eat specimens with a white mold growing on it. Cap size: 2.0-5.9 inches (5-15 cm), but can reach 7.9 inches (20 cm). Found in coniferous forests in the Pacific Northwest and in Asia.

 

Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus)

Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus)

Butter Bolete (Boletus regius)

Butter Bolete (Boletus regius)

37. Butter Bolete (Boletus appendiculatus, B. regius): Edible. These two species are both edible and usually have blue-staining flesh. Cap: 2.4-7.9 inches (6-20 cm), but can reach 11.8 inches (30 cm). Found in the Pacific Northwest (occasionlly in Europe) by itself or in large numbers on the ground under hardwoods and occasionally with conifers.

 

Satan's Bolete (Boletus satanas)

Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas)

Satan's Bolete (Boletus satanas)

Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas)

38. Satan’s Bolete (Boletus satanas): Poisonous. This bulbous, oak loving mushroom is hard to mistake. The cap is usually pale gray to olive and the stalk is redish-pink and fading to off-white with age. The flesh will turn blue when bruised. Will cause violent vomiting if eaten, although some eat it with no problem. As David Arora says, “…when so many more delectable and less dangerous mushrooms abound, why tempt fate?” Cap: 2.8-11.8 inches (7-30 cm). Commonly found in warmer temperate climates of the Northern Hemisphere in hardwood forests, especially with oak (North America) and beech (Europe).

 

Apple Bolete, Frost's Bolete (Boletus frostii)

Apple Bolete, Frost’s Bolete (Boletus frostii)

Apple Bolete, Frost's Bolete (Boletus frostii)

Apple Bolete, Frost’s Bolete (Boletus frostii)

39. Apple Bolete, Frost’s Bolete (Boletus frostii): Edible (caution advised due to resemblance to poisonous species!) This mushroom is beautiful with its characteristic dark-red to apple-red cap, red netted stalk, and flesh that turns blue when bruised. Pores often exude golden-colored droplets. Cap size: inches 2.0-5.9 inches (5-15 cm). Found alone, scattered, or in groups under hardwoods and pines, prefering oaks. Common throughout the eastern United States and into Mexico and Central America.

 

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii)

40. White King Bolete (Boletus barrowsii): Edible (choice). The cap, pores, and stalk of this large bolete are all dull white to gray that becomes yellow to olive-yellow with age. Reportedly a very fine-tasting mushroom. Cap: 2.4-9.8 inches (6-25 cm). Found in southwestern North America under conifers (pines) and hardwood (oaks).

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 Photo References:

  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Stropharia/Hypholoma%20fasciculare/Hypholoma%20fasciculare%20101.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1c/Hypholoma_fasciculare_LC0091.jpg
  • http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-5JnSkrGWhCk/TqR2yAkQ4jI/AAAAAAAAAIw/GEtJmJTgskQ/s1600/Pholiota%2Bsquarrosa.jpg
  • http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_2w9RJzTe-i0/TFcAYoo9QgI/AAAAAAAABXY/ynrP9eWFaco/s1600/CIMG1992.JPG
  • https://atrium.lib.uoguelph.ca/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10214/4571/Cortinarius_violaceus_Purple_Cortinarius.jpg?sequence=1
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Cortinarius/Cortinarius%20violaceus/Cortinarius%20violaceus%20107.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Chroogomphus_vinicolor_116581.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Chroogomphus_rutilus_Bryonia_orig.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Suillus_luteus_2.jpg
  • http://plantingmilkwood.files.wordpress.com/2012/05/1205-slippery-jacks-07.jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Boletus_mirabilis(mgw-04).jpg
  • http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/photos/large/Boletus_mirabilis(fs-01).jpg
  • http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-13ekYrRdvgc/ULJldLh-7_I/AAAAAAAAAgg/vJXuBwpFD0c/s1600/BOLETUS+REGIUS+.JPG
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a9/Boletus_appendiculatus_(72425),_Novato,_California_-_20091109.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus/Boletus%20satanas/Boletus%20satanas%204.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0d/Satans-Röhrling_Boletus_satanas.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus/Boletus%20frostii%201.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/78/Boletus_frostii_100632.jpg
  • http://mushroomhobby.com/Gallery/Boletus/Boletus%20barrowsii2.jpg
  • http://www.newmexicomyco.org/sites/default/files/Boletus_barrowsii.jpg